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    学习的初高级阶段以及所对应的分数

    学习的初高级阶段以及所对应的分数


    来源:家长学院  文章作者:佚名

      统计研究发现,学生的学习都存在初级阶段和高级阶段,表现在平时作业和考试都有比较明确的对应分数。

      学生的学习,分为知识漏洞(根本没学懂)考场上不可能获得分数、掌握理解的知识(原则上考场上不能拿到分数)和熟练的知识(考场上能够拿到分数)。

      一、学习的初级阶段

      一组知识,从不懂、陌生到完全理解掌握,需要重复四五遍才能达到。完全理解掌握的标志是,对这组知识的概念、知识点、解题思路和解题技巧都能立即掌握,在平时写作业中都能独立地完成正确的答题步骤。而这个阶段,遇到同类知识点组成的“新的”题型,数理化选填题一般需要3~4分钟以上的解题时间。综合性大题(初中题2~4个知识点组成大题,高中题4~5个知识点组成大题)则需要8~10分钟以上的解题时间。有的难度较大的大题需要20分钟以上的解题时间。

      二、学习的熟练阶段

      一组知识,从完全理解掌握,到熟练阶段,还得需要四遍的重复。对知识点和解题能力达到熟练的标志的是,遇到同类知识点组成的“新的”题型,数理化选填题一般需要2~3分钟内就可以拿下,大部分甚至在1分钟内拿下;综合性大题则能在5~6分钟之内拿下。

      三、学习的初级阶段所对应的分数以及在考场上的表现

      这部分分数占到总分的6~15%,有极限情况的学生这部分分数占到30%左右。这部分分数在平时作业训练中都能获得。但是在考场上却几乎不能获得。属于心态恐慌性丢分:即会做题丢分。

      四、学习的高级阶段所对应的分数以及在考场上的表现

      学习的高级阶段所对应的分数因人而异,不能固定。即学懂了又八九遍重复达到了熟练阶段。这部分知识即为能在考场上拿到的分数。对于不同学生这个分数没有固定的比例。(你家孩子的考试得分实际上就是这部分分数)

      五、为什么掌握理解的知识基本不能获得分数,而熟练的知识能获得分数

      1、考场上心态的影响导致大脑思维下降,从而导致大脑对知识的搜索、记识、整合能力下降。平时掌握理解但考场上却下降到对该类题的解题能力以下。产生会做题丢分。

      2、考场上对于熟练的知识能够拿到分数,是指对知识的强化训练到了一定程度,即便恐慌紧张大脑思维下降,仍能够对这部分知识做到有完整的搜索、记识和整合能力。

      3、举个比喻。假设学校把3m撑杆跳当做一项必考项目。你平时训练时,老师教练让你跳到3.3m,平时会每次都通过。但是在考试那天,你正好身体不舒服,使得你的体能下降,你只跳到2.99m,不能达标通过。如果老师教练平时让你训练极限强度4m,考试那天,你正好身体不舒服,你的体能大幅度下降,只跳了3.1m,你照样达标通过了。

      对于知识的学习和训练也是这样,你平时的训练强度决定了是达到“掌握理解”还是“熟练阶段”。遇到考试,由于心态恐慌导致思维速度下降,对知识的“搜索、记识、整合能力”下降,平时“掌握理解的知识”由于训练强度不够,在解题能力以下,则拿不到分数;平时“训练熟练的知识”,即便思维能力下降,但大脑仍对这部分知识出在“能够搜索、记识和整合能力”之内,则你能拿到分数。

      六、对知识各部分分数构成

      统计分析表明,对知识掌握理解的部分占到总分的6~15%,个例占到30%左右;对知识的熟练部分所占比例因人而异,你在考场上的得分所占总分比例就是;剩余的部分分数就是你的知识漏洞(或者没学会的、或者学会了又遗忘了)。这是对试卷难度系数保持均衡下而言。

      七、研究学习方法的目的

      研究学习方法的重要目的之一,就是使得考生考试时只能获得“熟练知识得分”,变为“熟练知识得分”+“掌握理解知识得分”。


    ·上一篇文章:初高中阶段应该养成的学习习惯
    ·下一篇文章:学习力六要素之学习心智的重要性


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