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    芬兰教育世界第一的秘密

    芬兰教育世界第一的秘密


    来源:家长学院  文章作者:佚名

      世界前三大新闻通讯社路透社怎么也想不到,他们传送给全球新闻界使用的两张照片,竟然活生生被一个十三岁的芬兰中学生拆穿。2011年八月,路透社转用俄罗斯电台影片,刊登两张俄罗斯潜艇在北极海底下插国旗的照片,住在芬兰北方小镇的少年塞罗丁看到报纸后,觉得怪怪的,于是动手找资料,确认这张潜艇照片是翻拍自电影「铁达尼」里面的一个片段。路透社被迫认错道歉。
      
      这就是芬兰教育为什么能连年惊艳全球的原因:小孩会主动想、主动问、主动找答案。教育已然成为芬兰最成功的出口产品。近几年,这个僻处北欧边界的极地国度,访客络绎于途。
      
      美国、韩国、日本、英国、南非等各国教育机构与领导,远走天涯海角到此,为的就是汲取「芬兰第一」的经验。《经济学人》更在去年为文建议,欧洲领导人应暂时放下所有活动,「回芬兰的学校上课。」
      
      自公元两千年开始,经合组织(OECD)每三年举办十五岁学生能力评估测验「国际学生评量计划」(PISA),芬兰青少年连续两届在阅读与科学两项评比称霸,解决问题和数学则位居第二。 「芬兰能,为什么瑞典不能?」书柜上兀自摆着台湾教育部长杜正胜九月前来拜访时所送的关公像,谈到芬兰的优异表现,瑞典教育部次长欧斯博格(Bertil Ostberg)不无感慨。尽管瑞典中学生在PISA的表现仍高于平均水平,瑞典民众显然不够满意,毕竟,芬兰三十年前启动教育改革时,还是向瑞典取的经。

      不光是瑞典,北欧在教育投注最多经费的丹麦和挪威,也跨海特聘芬兰教育专家,为他们的教育体系把脉、抓药方。 教育,让芬兰学生成为新的「北海小英雄」。过去二十年,世界各国前仆后继,挹注庞大资源推动教育改革,小小一个芬兰凭什么摘下桂冠? 拟定长期策略、坚持核心价值、改革师资,是芬兰教育成功的三大支柱。
      
      绿荫盎然。这栋原本是工厂的白色建筑物,还维持干净朴实的样貌。掌舵基础教育的芬兰国家教育委员会(Finnish National Board of Education,以下简称教委会),就隐身在首都赫尔辛基市区这片幽静的小区里。
      
      九年义务教育,经费政府出
      七○年代初期,教委会扛下芬兰独立建国后最大规模的改革重担,他们的使命是提供高质量的九年一贯义务教育,训练出能够提升国家竞争力的下一代。 教委会决定采用「综合学校」(comprehensive school)的模式,让七岁到十五岁的中小学生,不分年级,都待在同一所学校学习。在九年一贯教育中,学生课本、交通和午餐费用,全由政府负担,经费则由中央政府出资五七%,地方政府分摊四三%。这个决策延续三十年至今,不因政党轮替而改变。
      
      坚持平等精神,一个都不能少
      贯穿改革脉络、促使政策成功的教育核心价值,是「一个也不能少」的平等精神。
      
      当其他国家还在施行精英教育时,芬兰却反其道而行,绝不标榜精英,坚持每一个小孩公平受教。 从制度设计到资源分配,芬兰教育从平等出发。六十万中小学学生,分布在四千所综合学校,平均每校约一百五十人,班级人数不超过二十人,小班小校的制度有利于「无一人落后」(No Child Left Behind),没有贵族和平民学校之分。翻开芬兰各种教育文宣,从不高调「快乐学习」,对他们来说,有了公平,快乐就不是问题。
      
      只是,北欧国家都强调平等,芬兰能以黑马之姿脱颖而出,关键就在于用了对的策略。
      
      芬兰不是砸更多钱办教育,而是选择「专注」策略,把资源分配在「最需要的地方」,也就是初级中学和学习迟缓者身上。 在OECD国家评比中,芬兰是运用教育资源最有效率的国家之一。 不同的是,在大多数国家,高等教育学生平均分配到的经费最多;反观芬兰,投资在初级中学生的经费,每人平均达八千二百美元,在所有就学年龄中最高。
      
      说话慢条斯理的教委会资深顾问劳卡南(Reijo Laukkanen),拿出去年在瑞士洛桑大学演讲芬兰教改策略的讲稿剖析,之所以做这个策略选择,是因为「这阶段的小孩正发展自己的学习方法,需要最多的资源。」劳卡南表示,从PISA成果看出,芬兰在这群初中生的投资报酬率很高。
      
      绝不放弃学习慢的孩子
      提升学习迟缓者的学习能力,是芬兰专注策略的另一个重点。专门负责特殊教育的教委会顾问寇依薇拉(Pirjo Koivula)指出,教委会的目的是让「每个」小孩都具备基本能力,当学生出现短暂学习困难时,老师会立即提出矫正计划,在课堂上或是放学后进行个别辅导,费用由政府负担。 芬兰有将近二○%中小学生接受额外学习辅导,OECD国家平均只有六%。曾经当过特教老师的寇依薇拉边看数据边说,在老师早期介入辅导后,有轻微学习障碍的小孩都进步很快,一两个月之后,就不再需要「补救」。
      
      采用资源专注的策略还有一个好处,那就是芬兰学生的学习表现并没有明显城乡差距。在PISA测验中,芬兰校际差距全球第二小,不到五%(差距最小的是人口仅三十万的冰岛)。不论是首都赫尔辛基,或是偏远北极圈的中学,测验成绩相差不大。

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