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    決定教育成敗的關鍵法則:教育中的二八定律

    決定教育成敗的關鍵法則:教育中的二八定律


    來源:學習力教育中心  文章作者:余建祥

      在教育中,有一個讓人無法理解的現象:學霸們的父母都很輕松,在孩子身上投入的精力并不多,但孩子卻表現優異;而很多父母在孩子身上傾注了大量的時間、精力和財富,但孩子卻表現平平,不盡如人意。一邊是低投入高產出,另一邊卻是高投入低產出,形成了鮮明的對比。到底是什么原因造成了如此反差巨大的現實呢?

      一、普遍存在于社會學、經濟學中的二八定律

      有一個著名的定律,揭示了這一現象背后的本質。二八定律是19世紀末20世紀初意大利經濟學家帕累托發現的。他認為,在任何一組東西中,最重要的只占其中一小部分,約20%,卻對結果會產生80%的決定性作用,其余80%盡管是多數,卻是次要的,因此又稱二八定律。

      1897年,意大利經濟學者巴萊多偶然注意到19世紀英國人的財富和收益模式。在調查取樣中,發現大部分的財富流向了少數人手里。同時,他還從早期的資料中發現,在其他的國家,都發現有這種微妙關系一再出現,而且在數學上呈現出一種穩定的關系。于是,帕累托從大量具體的事實中發現:社會上20%的人占有80%的社會財富,即:財富在人口中的分配是不平衡的。同時,人們還發現生活中存在許多不平衡的現象。因此,二八定律成了這種不平等關系的簡稱,不管結果是不是恰好為80%和20%(從統計學上來說,精確的80%和20%出現的概率很。。習慣上,二八定律討論的是頂端的20%,而非底部的80%。人們所采用的二八定律,是一種量化的實證法,用以計量投入和產出之間可能存在的關系。

      通過二八定律(二八法則),延伸出很多著名的法則,如:

      貴賓法則。給一個公司帶來80%利潤的是20%的客戶。按照這個原則,如果能把這20%的客戶找出來,提供更好的服務,對于公司的發展和業績的增長無疑是最大的幫助。

      品牌法則。20%的強勢品牌,占有80%的市場份額。一般來說,第一品牌的市場占有率比第二品牌高出一倍以上,在行業中是價值最大的品牌。在網絡界,三大門戶網站無論是在吸引力方面,還是收入方面都占據網絡產業的絕大部分。

      通過二八定律也延伸出很多現象,如:

      管理學:通常一個企業80%的利潤來自它20%的項目。

      心理學:20%的人身上集中了人類80%的智慧,他們一出生就鶴立雞群。

      大智出有大偽,樸素的力量同樣托起了藍天?偠灾,在原因和結果、投入和產出、努力和報酬之間存在的這種不平衡關系,可以分為兩種不同類型:多數,它們只能造成少許的影響;少數,它們造成主要的、重大的影響。

      80/20法則不僅在經濟學、管理學領域應用廣泛,它對我們的自身發展也有重要的現實意義:學會避免將時間和精力花費在瑣事上,要學會抓主要矛盾。一個人的時間和精力都是非常有限的,要想真正“做好每一件事情”幾乎是不可能的,要學會合理地分配時間和精力。要想面面俱到還不如重點突破。把80%的資源花在能出關鍵效益的20%的方面,這20%的方面又能帶動其余80%的發展。

    |<< << < 1 2 3 > >> >>|


    ·上一篇文章:教育部所要求的“研學旅行課程化”,到底難在哪?
    ·下一篇文章:教育思考:給孩子最好的教育是執念還是偉大?


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