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    中国古代著名书院

    中国古代著名书院


    来源:中国校园文化建设网  文章作者:佚名

        书院,是我国古代特有的一种教育形式,对我国文化教育的发展曾产生过重大影响。它既是教育中心,又是学术文中心,蕴藏着丰富的文化遗产和良好的学术传统。 
        书院学子皆为有志于学的成年士子。其主持人称山长或堂长,由书院办院人聘请或自任,此人须是名重一时的学者。书院采取问难论辩式,师生各抒己见,注意启发学生的思维,培养自学能力。学术研究和教育相结合,是书院教学的一个突出的特点。
        书院之名始于唐代。唐玄宗开元三十一年,诏设丽正书院,到宋代书院逐渐形成一种制度。
        我国古代著名的书院主要有:
        白鹿洞书院:设在庐山五老峰南麓后屏山之阳,为宋代四大著名书院之一。该院在中古国教育是上有着特殊的地位,它是我国第一所书院。哲学家与教育家朱熹、陆象山、王阳明等相继在该院讲学。朱熹指制定的白鹿洞书院院规,对后人有许多可取之处,如:博学、审问、愤思、明辨、笃行等,教育人要多请教、多研究、多思考、多实践。
        嵩阳书院:原址在河南登封县嵩山东峰,原为嵩阳寺。宋代著名书院之一。
        应天府书院:宋初四大书院之一,原址在河南商丘县城。范仲淹曾在该院讲学。
        鹅湖书院:宋代著名书院之一,地处江西铅山县北。南宋淳熙二年由著名学士吕祖谦邀集当代著名学者陆九渊和朱熹进行了一次学术研讨,原想调和二者的学术之争,不意二人会间各执一理,相争不下,并赋诗相互责难,形成一场真正的学术辩论会,这就是历史上的著名的“鹅湖之会”。
        白鹭洲书院:南宋著名书院之一。在江西吉安市赣江之中,南宋吉州知州江万里所建。南宋名相文天祥曾就读于该院。
        洙四书院:在今山东泗水县。古代著名讲学之所。
        东林书院:在明代众多书院中,最著名的书院是东林书院。院址在江苏无锡城东南原为北宋教育家杨时讲学之所。后即在该地建书院。该院亦称”龟山书院“。东林书院是当时重要的一个文化学术中心,并形成一套完备的讲会制度。
        漳南书院:清代著名书院之一。原址在河北肥乡县。清朝康熙十九年于成龙为直隶巡抚时在此建义学,稍后郝文灿扩建,改称漳南书院。当时该院名噪华北,极受冀人景仰。
        岳麓书院:书院坐落于历史名城长沙市湖南大学校园,该院于北宋开宝九年(976年)潭州太守朱洞创建。该院从南宋到清代,代代有名人:陶澍、贺长龄、郭嵩焘、曾国藩、左宗棠、胡林翼,都是叱咤风云的人物;谭嗣同、唐才常、黄兴、蔡锷、陈天华、程潜等更是岳麓高徒。在岳麓进入学堂时期,又为中国培养了大批革命家,蔡和森、郑中下、谢觉哉、甘泗淇、周小舟等毕业于该校。毛泽东曾三次寓居岳麓问学于杨昌济。 
        万松书院:书院始建于唐贞元年间(785-804),名报恩寺。明弘治十一年(1498),浙江右参政周木改辟为万松书院。明代理学家王阳明曾在此讲学。清康熙帝为书院题写“浙水敷文”匾额,遂改称为敷文书院。现遗址尚存有“万世师表”四字的牌坊一座和依稀可见“至圣先师孔子像”的石碑等物。四大民间传说故事中的梁山伯和祝英台就在此读书相逢,书院也因此家喻户晓。


    ·上一篇文章:百年书香最忆杭州 浙江两大百年名校纵览
    ·下一篇文章:伊顿公学——英国最著名的贵族中学


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