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    多元智能理论对课程开发有怎样的启示?

    多元智能理论对课程开发有怎样的启示?


    来源:学习力教育中心  文章作者:佚名

    多元智能作为一种指导教学的哲学,并不是一个新概念。可以说,古希腊的柏拉图似乎就意识到了多元教学的重要性,柏拉图曾这样写到:“不要用强迫的方法,而应该把早期教育看做一种娱乐;你将能更好地发现孩子的自然天赋”。

    近代以来,几乎所有现代教育的拓荒者,事实上发展了多种教学系统,这些教学系统都不仅仅是基于语言的教育。18世纪著名哲学家卢梭在他的经典教育著作《爱弥儿》中宣称,儿童不是通过单词是应该通过练习,不是通过书本而是要通过“生活之书”来进行学习的。瑞士的教育改革者裴斯泰洛齐强调,应把身体的、道德的、智力的训练看做一个整合的课程,这个课程是以学生具体的经验为基础的。现代幼儿园的创建者,被誉为“幼儿教育之父”的福禄贝尔,发展了一门课程,该课程除了做游戏、唱歌、园艺、照顾小动物以外,还由多种动手操作的经验所组成。20世纪,蒙台梭利和杜威等教育改革家,发展了基于与多元智能教学技巧相类似的教学系统,包括蒙台梭利的触觉字母和其他的自定步调学习材料以及杜威把课堂看做社会小天地的观点。

    同样说来,当今许多不断变换的教育模式从本质上看都是属于多元智能体系的,只是使用了不同的专业术语(或者是在不同水平上强调多元智能)。例如,合作学习似乎是特别强调人际关系智能,但其中一些特别的教学活动也能涉及到学生们的其他智能方面。同样的,对于整个语言教学来说,其重点似乎是放在了言语智能的训练上,但是语言教学中运用音乐、动手练习、内省(通过记日记的)和小组工作等教学手段也实现了其他的最基本的教学目标。暗示教学法,是保加利亚精神病医生洛扎诺夫发展的一种教育方法,利用戏剧与直观教具作为开启学生学习潜能的钥匙。在这种教学方法中,音乐在促进学生学习方面发挥了很大的作用,对于学生来说,听音乐就是学习的一个组成部分。

    多元智能理论本质上包含了优秀的教师在教学中所应该做的:超越课本和黑板以达到唤醒学生头脑的目的。多元智能理也有助于教师们扩展他们的全部教学工作,包括为适应一个更广泛的多种多样的学习者范围的教学方法、教学材料和教学技能。

    在多元智能课堂中的教师与传统的言语教学课堂中的教师有鲜明的区别。在传统的课堂中,教师总是站在教室的前面演讲、在黑板上板书,就一些事先已经安排好的阅读材料提问学生,在学生完成作业时等待他们。在多元智能的课堂中,教师总是在不断地改变他的表达方法,从语言的到空间的再到音乐的等等,教师通常是在用创造性的方法进行智能整合。

    多元智能的教师可以花一部分时间进行演讲和在黑板上写板书。毕竟,这是一项合理的教学技巧。关于这些简单的教学技巧,教师们已经做得太多。无论如何,作为多元智能的教师还应该在黑板上画一些板画,或者是播放一段录像带以举例说明某一个观点。他常常在一天中的某一段时间放音乐,要么是设定一个阶段目标,要么是阐述一个论点,要么是提供一个学习的环境。多元智能的教师常常提供动手的练习,这些包括让学生站起来动一动身体,或者是通过一个人为的现象把学生导入到生活中的学习材料,或者是让学生建立一个可以触知的事情以启发他们理解。多元智能的教师也让学生以不同的方式相互交流(例如成对的、小组或大组),教师为学生安排自我反省的时间,承担自定步调的工作,或者是把他们个人的经历与感受和学习的材料联系起来,只要一有可能,教师还创造机会让学生通过生物或自然来学习。

    不论多元智能教师具备或不具备上述那些特征,无论如何都不应该把多元智能理论对教学的指导过分地狭窄化。从传统的教师要花费大量的时间直接教给学生的课堂设置,一直到开放的由学生自主管理自己的学习的环境,在这样一个宽阔的教学内容中这个理论都能够得以实现。甚至就是在传统的语言教学中也能出现多种多样的刺激学生八个方面智能的教学方法。在传统的以教师为中心的课堂中,教师以不同的节奏强调进行演讲(音乐-节奏智能)、在黑板上画图以说明重点(视觉-空间智能)、谈话时配合一定的手势(身体-运动智能)、停下来给一些时间让学生进行反思(自我内省智能)、提出问题进行情感的交流(人际交流智能)以及在演讲中涉及自然(自然观察智能),这些都是运用了多元智能理论的原则。

    在多元智能理论教学体系中有多种教学工具,远远超过传统的以教师演讲为主的教学模式。

    言语-语言智能:演讲,大组或小组讨论,书本,作业单,手册,头脑风暴,写作,词汇游戏,分享时间,学生讲演,讲故事,书刊录音和录像带,即席演讲,辩论,记日记,朗读,在班级中读书,熟记言语事实,录音机,使用文字处理器,出版(出班级小报等)。

    音乐-节奏智能:音乐概念,演唱,合唱,演奏,心境音乐,音乐欣赏,打拍子,运用背景音乐,唱片分类目录,为概念创造新的旋律,倾听内部音乐意象,音乐软件。

    逻辑-数学智能:黑板上的数学问题,苏格拉底问题法,科学论证,逻辑的问题解决练习,分类与分类法,创造密码,逻辑难题和游戏,定量与计算,计算机程序语言,科学思维,主题的连续逻辑的表演,皮亚杰认知伸展练习,启发式。

    视觉-空间智能:图表、曲线图、几何图形和示意图,想像,摄影,电视、幻灯片和影片,视觉难题,3D立体图像,艺术欣赏,想像讲故事,图片隐喻,图画、抽象派艺术或其他的视觉艺术,思维素描,视觉思维练习,绘画符号,计算机平面造型艺术软件,,颜色记号,视力认识活动,画图/计算机辅助设计软件,画图素质练习。

    身体-运动智能:创造型的运动,操作学习,郊游,演哑剧,教室剧场,竞争与合作游戏,身体意识练习,各种动手活动,技能或技艺,肢体地图,运动意象的运用,烹调、园艺等,熟练的操作,实际的软件,运动概念,体育活动,运用身体语言或手势交流,触觉材料与经验,身体放松练习,用肢体语言回答。

    自我内省智能:独立学习,情感体验的时刻,个人项目或游戏,学习的私人空间,一分钟自我反省,兴趣中心,个人的联系,任选家庭作业,选择时间,自我教学程序介绍,自我评价活动,杂志保存,确立目标。

    人际交流智能:合作小组,人际交往,冲突调解,同伴教学,图板游戏,不同年龄相互为导师,小组头脑风暴对话,同伴分享,模拟,学术俱乐部,交互式软件,为学习而联系的聚会,人物塑造。

    自然观察智能:自然漫步,水族箱、陆地动物饲养箱以及其他可移动的生态系统,园艺,自然的视频、胶片或电影,自然学习工具(双筒望远镜、望远镜和显微镜),生态学习,教室气象站,作为道具的植物,临窗学习。


    ·上一篇文章:提高学困班成绩有两点很关键
    ·下一篇文章:如何将多元智能整合于课程之中?


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