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    家庭教育的有效期和界限

    家庭教育的有效期和界限


    來源:學習力教育中心  文章作者:余建祥

      首先,家庭教育是有最佳窗口期的。孩子的教育敏感期百分之九十以上都集中在8歲以前,也就是說,孩子8歲前是家庭教育實施效果最理想、最高效的階段。這個階段也是孩子核心素養的培養最佳期。

      一般來說,我們建議家長對孩子核心素養的培養要在小學之前良好地達成,孩子一旦進入中學以后,家長對孩子的影響力會急劇下降。也就是說,進入中學以后,家長對孩子的影響會越來越小,家庭教育所起的作用也越來越低,是明顯的高投入低產出。所以,我們的課程體系開發也是在幼兒和小學階段重點是對家長進行教育,讓家長們在幼兒和小學階段在日常的生活、學習中培養起孩子良好的核心素養。進入中學以后,我們針對家長的課程就越來越少,重點都是針對學生本人的自我修煉和提升了。所以,幼兒和小學階段是家庭教育實施的關鍵時期,過了這個有效期,家庭教育的比重和作用就會急劇下降。

      其次,教育結果會有延后性。多數錯誤的教育方式,其結果并不是馬上顯現出來的,而是會有明顯的延后性。比如在幼兒階段不注重孩子意志力、專注力的培養,進入小學以后,孩子上課不能專注聽課,很容易受外部環境的影響的現象就會明顯表現出來。在幼兒階段不注重孩子閱讀理解能力的培養,進入小學以后,別的孩子半分鐘就能看明白并解答出來的應用題,你的孩子可能花了3分鐘還沒整明白,甚至完全理解錯了;旧,家長意識到孩子明顯的教育問題的時候,都是前期大量積累的緣故,這時候要來解決,成本就會非常高,效果也不會很理想。就好比癌癥在早期是很容易低成本治愈的,而到了晚期不僅費用昂貴,還不一定有好的效果。

      所以,在教育上,家長一定要有前瞻性,不能光顧眼前,這樣會很容易陷入頭痛醫頭、腳疼醫腳的漩渦。

      第三,要注意家庭教育和學校教育的界限(或者說不同責任)。家庭教育和學校教育是有非常明顯的界限的,家庭教育重在培養孩子的核心素養,如孩子意志力、專注力、閱讀理解能力、思辨能力、學習習慣等,而學校教育則是重在學科教育,即知識的傳授。孩子的核心素養是地基,決定著孩子學習知識和技能的效率和能力,F實中,多數家長把更多的精力耗在了知識和技能的培養上,這也是造成多數孩子進入學校以后,學習吃力和艱辛的最重要原因。這就是分不清家庭教育和學校教育界限所造成的嚴重后果。

      所以,家長朋友在家庭教育上一定要重視起自己的職責范圍,并在關鍵時段有效地進行針對性的培養,才能輕松培養出優秀的子女。(余建祥)

      作者簡介:余建祥,著名學習力教育專家、家庭教育頂層設計專家。


    ·上一篇文章:教育最大的風險,是父母低層次的教育認知局限
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