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    心理研究发现人类培养新习惯需66天左右

    心理研究发现人类培养新习惯需66天左右


    来源:新华网  文章作者:彭俊勇

      多久才能培养出好习惯?英国心理学家通过实验发现,大约经过66天坚持之后,人们就会做到“习惯成自然”,把好习惯转化成生活的一部分,不再需要刻意坚持。

      习惯养成

      为探寻人们将一种重复性行为变成习惯的时间,英国伦敦大学学院教授简·沃德尔带领研究小组展开深入研究。研究报告发表在近期出版的《欧洲社会心理学杂志》上。

      研究人员认为,当人们不需要刻意思考和盘算,而是不带明确目的去做一件事时,习惯就已经养成。为此他们挑选96名志愿者进行了为期84天的实验。

      实验对象在午餐时加吃水果、喝一杯水或晚餐前跑步15分钟三者之间选择一种,并要每天坚持去做,不能松懈。

      实验开始后,志愿者们每天还要填写数据,包括对自己所做之事意识性减少和控制力减少的情况。研究人员将这些数据绘制成曲线模型。

      英国《每日电讯报》18日援引沃德尔的话报道:“我们发现对大多数人而言,在经过66天坚持之后就会养成一种习惯。”

      各有不同

      是不是所有人都会在66天内养成一项习惯呢?

      对此,沃德尔说:“对某个人而言,情况会有所不同。但是当你每天都在同样情况下做同样的事,习惯就会成自然。”

      参与实验的志愿者中,82人提供了充足数据供研究人员加以分析。62人的数据曲线和研究人员事先设想的曲线相符合,其中39人完全符合。

      “当人们在始终如一的背景下重复做同样的事时,就会变得更加有效率。同时,这种情况也会变成对环境的自动反应——就是说,习惯已养成,”沃德尔解释说。

      研究成果同时显示,虽然总体上看,人们在66天内会养成某种习惯,但在具体项目上有所不同。例如,较复杂行为习惯一般需要更长时间才能养成;运动方面习惯的养成也要比饮食习惯的养成耗费更多时间。

      研究报告说,95%的人养成一种习惯的时间在18天至254天之间。

      “好坏”通用

      万事开头难,在好习惯培养过程中这句话同样适用。

      沃德尔忠告那些刚开始培养好习惯的人:“在开始培养某种习惯时,计划非常重要,即使在行动前几分钟去制定计划也是有百利无一害。”

      培养好习惯固然重要,去除坏习惯同样重要。对此,沃德尔说,好习惯养成要靠环境和计划的影响,坏习惯对这二者同样依赖。

      事前计划对改正坏习惯很重要。她举例说,如果你有进家门就喝一杯酒的习惯,那么最好在进门前就想好其他事情来转移注意力。此外,把计划写下来,同时大声读出来对克服坏习惯也是不错的方法。

      无论是培养好习惯还是消除坏习惯,坚持不懈至关重要,但是偶尔松懈并不会在实质上影响习惯的养成。

      沃德尔小组研究人员表示,下一步研究目标是如何将习惯养成用在坚持减肥上。(彭俊勇)


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