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    名人与读书:陆九渊的读书法

    名人与读书:陆九渊的读书法


    来源:中国儿童文学网  文章作者:朱冠军

      “读书切戒在慌忙,涵泳工夫兴味长。未晓不妨权放过,切身须要急思量。”这是宋代理学代表人物陆九渊写的一首名为《读书》的诗。他博览群书,思想深厚,读书见解亦有独到之处,并在长期的阅读和著述实践中,形成了自己的读书方法。

      在具体的读书过程中,陆九渊提出了“涵泳法”,意即读书最忌讳急于求成,若能平缓心性,细心涵泳,必有无穷兴味。“如今读书且平平读,未晓处且放过,不必太滞。”在遇到一时弄不明白的地方,也不要就此僵住,往往越是急于弄懂,可能越不容易弄懂,每每此时,不妨暂且将不解之处放在一边,等到通读上下文后或是日后重新阅读时,加之此间个人对书中内容的认真思考和融会贯通,慢慢地也就领悟了精髓。

      在陆九渊看来,若识书真味,慌忙当首戒。慌忙是一种心理忙乱无序、心灵不能把握自己心智的状态。在这种情况下带着杂念读书,书中沉潜的真谛和内涵自然也就不能完整地领会。陆九渊认为,慌忙莫读书,读书当心境从容,读书当肺腑舒展,这也是读书必须具备的最基本、最重要的准备工夫。

      陆九渊认为,读书不是简单的识字过程,而是一个复杂的心理过程,不光需要通过文理和作者进行心灵沟通,而且需要沉浸字里行间触摸文章的意旨,还需要拥有审美的意趣。但读书又不是一件令人头疼的苦差事,只要懂得用心涵泳,就能心境舒放沉潜其中,进而通过反复玩味和推敲,获得书之真味、境之妙处、神之所养。

      读书不只需要心理前提和基本方法,同样需要讲究策略,既要有灵活性,也要坚持原则性。一般来说,对于书中一时半刻难以理解甚至无法理解的,不妨暂时放下,待日后功夫到了自然豁然开朗,但如果是与自己联系紧密且常常用到的,就应抓紧时间认真思考,直到弄懂弄通、完全掌握为止。

      陆九渊的涵泳读书法,不仅是一种读书方法,还浸润着哲学思辨的智慧和美学体验的意趣。采用涵泳法读书,不仅能从书中汲取知识的营养,而且还可陶冶自己的性情,对于我们读书多有教益,但凡读书,势必平心静气,潜入文理,慢慢体味。如此,才能拥有畅游浩瀚书海的闲适惬意,才能成就与作者同频脉动的深邃和鸣,才能在不停发现新奇的征程中切感兴味无穷。(朱冠军)


    ·上一篇文章:科学实用的通用高效暗记方法
    ·下一篇文章:中国古代集大成的读书法:朱子读书法


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