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    锻炼大脑的八种方法

    锻炼大脑的八种方法


    来源:中国中小学教育网  文章作者:佚名

      我们所挑选的八种最佳方法全都是以神经科学为依归,来锻炼大脑并维持大脑的健康。但若说我们遗漏了某些同样有效的方法,我不会感到意外。此外,在这份清单中倒有几项是会令人感到意外的,它们全都跟宗教信仰无关,却可轻易地与我们所属意的任何灵性传统整合。我们相信,除了有益于大脑,这些方法也可以加强伦理行为,转化内在真实。一旦到达这个境界,跟着改变的不只是观看世界的角度,个人的灵命乃至对神的认知也将为之改变。

      锻炼大脑的第八大法 微笑

      即使不愿意,微笑,反复地微笑,就这个简单的动作,可以使坏心情烟消云散,可以强化大脑的神经力量,对生活维持正面的展望。即使只是装出来的微笑,别人也会回报以更大的开朗与和善。就我所知,唯一把微笑放进修行的宗教是佛教,一行禅师就叫我们修“微笑禅”,有空就做。进电梯时微笑,在超市排队时微笑,你会发觉周遭的人都会安静下来,自己的心情变得更好,同理心油然而生,人们以和善响应。正如一行禅师所写:“人若不会笑,世间无和平。”此外,微笑没有文化界限,而且具有神经的感染力,对女性的感染尤胜于男性。

      微笑会刺激大脑回路,强化人际互动、同理心与愉悦度。事实上,微笑对大脑具有强大的作用力,使人在看到一张笑脸时会不由自主地觉得安心、安全。相反的,皱眉(或看到皱眉的脸)会激发愤怒、厌恶与嫌恶的感觉。在一项有争议的研究中,将肉毒杆菌注射进皱纹中居然可以减缓主观的沮丧感。

      而大笑刺激的是不同的神经通路。诙谐与幽默之所以不在清单之内,部分原因在于它所牵涉的机制和惊讶与不谐调有关。大笑与幽默会刺激杏仁体,意味着这种心情有时候和不安、害怕有关。看到别人做了蠢事而出丑,可能会让许多人大笑,因为可以借此快速发泄内心的焦虑(另有一说是,别人犯错,自己幸灾乐祸)。

      另有证据显示,大笑有助于降低压力并加强免疫系统,甚至开启某些对抗癌症、糖尿病与艾滋病的基因。但其变化显然是暂时的,在健康方面是否获得明显改善,研究无法加以证实。

      培养爱笑的个性或许有益。有一天,有个人找了一群实验对象,要求他们每天没事就笑个十五分钟,过了八周,为他们扫描,结果发现,和焦虑、愉快、虐待与平静有关的神经回路都受到了刺激。

      我们衷心推荐大家听“愉快的”音乐(没错,大脑会把声音组织成为各种各样的情绪),可以激发微笑,改善心情,而且在应付长期或严重的疾病时,对大脑特别有帮助。

      锻炼大脑的第七大法 保持智能的活跃

      一个神经元可以和数以千计的其他神经元连接,靠的是树突与轴突,而树突与轴突如果不用就会废掉。智能与认知的刺激可以强化整个额叶的神经连接,又可以改善我们沟通、解决问题以及针对自己的行为做理性决策的能力。几乎所有与年老有关的认知障碍都和额叶的运作有关,又由于这一部位所拥有的神经元联结多过任何脑叶,因此,锻炼这一特殊部位的皮质也就特别重要。此外,高度灵活的额叶也有利于饮食、运动,并能遏止从事有害健康活动的意念。

      记忆与记忆术的锻炼、讲求策略的游戏,如象棋和麻将,以及其他各种视觉的或空间的运动与游戏,都能够显著改善认知功能,对年纪较长的人尤其如此。玩这类游戏愈是认真、频繁,认知功能也就变得愈强。更重要的是,智能的刺激,几乎不分形式,都可以降低愤怒与恐惧的回应倾向。借由想象甚至可以改善身体的协调性,即使是在心里踩着舞步起舞或挥动高尔夫球杆,都可以使人把动作做得更准确。在达成个人目标上,也是如此。愈是经常想象自己想要的事,完成心愿的可能性就愈大。

      每天尽量多花几个小时从事自己能够想象的智能挑战活动,尽可能多解决一些复杂问题,并尽量快速,因为快速的智能运作有助于保持大脑健康。阅读书籍(小说或非小说均可)或听有声读物、看教育或科学电视频道、上一堂课或听一场讲演、参观博物馆、下一盘棋和写写日记等,都大有益处。但做数学题目或玩填字游戏则未必有帮助,因为有完成的压力,甚至可能妨碍记忆功能。因此,尽量让自己的智能追求成为享受。另有研究显示,若要神经元与树突保持良好连接,就得多做各种精细而具有挑战性的认知活动。

      宗教与灵性的议题也可以对大脑功能形成刺激。读经、沉思、跟朋友讨论以及严肃思考面对人生的深层问题,都是活化大脑中复杂回路的极佳法门。事实上,宗教与灵性都是今天最具挑战性的议题,专注于这类问题,从不同的角度深入钻研,都可以扩张并强化大脑的活力。

      有一项心智活动则是要大家提防的,那就是电视游戏。玩得愈多,攻击性愈强,处理事情的技巧也愈差。额叶的功能衰退,会恶化成为注意力分散、依赖性强,而且儿童与青少年容易对这些游戏上瘾。如我们在上一章所言,暴力电视游戏明显会激化攻击行为。但话又说回来,有一种说法是,非暴力电视游戏也会造成永久性的神经与行为伤害,即使没有确切证据可以证明。

      那么,计算机的认知训练软件又如何呢?能够改善大脑的功能吗?近年来,有不同版本的大脑强化软件大量问世,在科学界与学术界也引起极大争议。以认知为导向的计算机游戏显然可以改善神经功能,至少对认知能力有问题的人有帮助,但到目前为止,还没有办法在不同的训练之间做有效的比较。

      锻炼大脑的第六大法 有意识地放松

      我讲的当然不是打个盹,或是窝在沙发中看电视,而是用心察看自己身体的每个部分,消除肌肉的紧张与身体的疲劳。若再加上美妙的音乐,就可以更快放松。值得一提的是,经证明平和的音乐能够使认知更为敏锐,并能增强灵性的安适感。

      重复、安适并且有意义的简单动作也可以让人进入深层的放松状态。我在最近的一项研究中发现,数念珠的动作可以减少紧张、压力与焦虑。许多其他宗教修行与灵修也可以镇定心神,恢复大脑的活力,甚至连编织这样的活动都有相同的放松效果。

      放松绝不只是消除身体的紧张而已。放松可以阻断大脑释放压力刺激产生的神经化学物质,而在美国,压力正是头号杀手。降低压力可以减少心脏病、高血压的风险并缓解疼痛。专注于呼吸也可以清除压力,但相较于放松,再多的深呼吸,效果也难望其项背。

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